Officially born in Maastricht in 1993, European citizenship is unique in its kind: it is the first transnational citizenship of the modern era, and arguably the testimony of a prodigious path of integration among nations that, after years of troubled relations, finally came together to create the biggest area of democracy and freedom in the world. Almost thirty years later, European citizenship remains a highly topical issue for a number of reasons. In a general sense, it is pressured by the rise of populism, nationalism, as well as the constantly increasing constraining dissensus of national actors vis-à-vis supranational institutions. More specifically, however, recent developments, such as Brexit and attacks on the rule of law in some Member States, make a re-discussion of this form of citizenship ever more urgent.Continue reading
20 years after the introduction of the European E-Commerce Directive, the Digital Services Act (DSA) was presented yesterday by the European Commission to complement the aging Directive. Twenty years ago, when the E-Commerce Directive (which still regulates the internal market for online services) was introduced, there were no social media platforms as we know them today. Regulation aimed at the requirements of the platform economy is therefore urgently needed. In addition to the Digital Services Act, the Commission also presented the Digital Markets Act (DMA), which is directed at platforms with a gatekeeper function. The DMA supplements regulations on competition law and is intended to limit the market power of the larger digital corporations.Continue reading
The number of women in politics is still low in East-European countries. Women face more challenges in politics than men. The Indítsuk Be Magyarországot Foundation (connected to Momentum Movement) wants to fight this by its new project called Hungarian Women’s Academy , which wants to motivate women to engage in politics.
Women’s participation in public life tends to be pyramid-shaped: the more we move toward smaller settlements, the more female politicians we meet. This implies that women have the same political ambitions as men, but somehow only a few female leaders make it to the top. Women in politics face resistance, discrimination, social stereotypes and double standards. They face myriad challenges in politics. Female politicians are judged by how they look and how they are dressed, more than their ideas, but when they do express their views and opinions, they are held to a much higher standard than men do.
The proportion of women in parliament in all post-sovjet countries are around 10-20%. In Hungary it is 12.2%, in Slovakia it is 20.7% and in Romania it is 19.8%. While the trend in most countries around the world is to see an increase in the proportion of women in parliaments, Hungary has fallen from 66th to 149th in 20 years, according to IPU figures.
Hungary is considered to be a conservative country when it comes to gender roles. Moreover, the public rhetoric in the country made family and child-rearing at the top of the list of women’s tasks, politics is a field for strong males according to the governing party. Despite a positive shift in the Hungarian society regarding the political role of women in recent years (Momentum had two female candidates on their European Parliamentary list, also Democratic Coalition had a female lead candidate on the EP elections), the share of women in politics has not changed radically since the regime change. Currently there are no quotas or anything else that would empower females to take a step forward and become the leaders they could be. That is one of the reasons why female empowerment has become a priority for Indítsuk Be Magyarországot Foundation. As a result the Foundation has decided to launch its own Women’s Academy which is the very first one in the region that aims to empower its participants to lead in making a change in Hungarian politics.
By educating, supporting and empowering females the Hungarian society gets closer to equality and motivates women leaders to start their grassroot movements as the true engines of changes. Furthermore by promising a new, fresh political culture, female politicians and role models could be one of the biggest threats to Orban’s illiberal and unequal regime.
Anikó Paróczai is the Director of the International Office of the liberal party Momentum and a member of the local council in the 19th district Budapest. Before going into politics, Anikó was a civil rights activist, fighting for equal education for all and the rights of the youth. She participated in the German Federal Elections as an International Election Observer Coordinator, and led the European Citizens Initiative “More Education!” in Hungary in 2017.
Hungarian Women’s Academy is a project launched by the Indítsuk Be Magyarországot Foundation and supported by Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. This project aims to educate and empower women to get engaged in politics. Among its goals belong the rise in the number of women elected in Hungary or connecting active female participants in politics.
Indítsuk Be Magyarországot Foundation is the party foundation of Momentum Movement, it was founded at the end of 2018. Ever since the foundation is working on issues that are crucial in the Hungarian society, like civic participation, media freedom, anti corruption and equality.
The #FemaleForward online campaign highlights women’s achievements that show how businesses and communities thrive when women take on bigger roles. One of our ambassadors is Eva Díaz from Spain.
Trained in Mechanical Engineering and with more than 20 years of experience in senior management, Eva is currently the CEO of Appogeo Digital, a Spanish Capital Company that develops mobility solutions. Born in 1962, she completed her gender identity transition process in 2015, being able to maintain her professional and personal activities during this process and becoming a role model for a new type of leadership. As a member of Ciudadanos, Spain’s liberal party and REDI, Network of Companies for Diversity and Equality, Eva actively promotes diversity, female empowerment and entrepreneurship as well as gender equality. Particularly the gender pay gap, which is still existent in almost all European countries, worries her:
“Spain is moving forward, but not in a structured way and without addressing the root causes of the problem.”
Spain has a modern legislation, but lacks a targeted strategy to overcome latent prejudices, customs and cultural traditions deeply rooted in society. Too often feminism is misused for political campaigning, although it is high time for taking real action: The rapid and highly complex digital transformation calls for a new, more feminine kind of leadership. Eva believes that “the integrative vision that women have through education and the ability to listen and generate networks” aligns with the digitally connected world. Digital strategy is equivalent to a collaboration and networks strategy to make successful decisions, it is essential take all players into consideration, the customer, the experts, and the environment. This must not be a uniquely feminine trait, but good leaders surely are both: willing to listen and ready to take well thought out steps and decisive action at the same time.
The basis for change is education. Knowledge is the key to self-determination and empowerment. Freedom one can say, comes about after a long and often not uncomplicated process of character formation.
“I believe that the woman that I am now is the combination of my professional experience, my personal gender transition process and an education based on personal effort and the struggle to achieve my goals”
says Eva. “My education taught me to get the most out of myself that I could become regardless of the barriers, my transition process has shown me that dreams are possible and above all it has taught me to commit to others and my profession has given me the ability to see the future with perspective and to meet and learn from great professionals.” Besides education, communication, like the FNF FemaleForward campaign, are of utter importance, according to Eva: “Making visible those women in main roles in their professional areas is absolutely basic to promote, in our young girls, the idea that, as a woman, they can get any dream they wish. To believe in yourself is key”.
Topic of the month
Poland and Hungary vetoed the EU’s historic EUR 1,8 trillion budget and Covid-19 recovery plan over attempts to link funding to respect for the rule of law and democratic norms. The Rule of Law Mechanism would give the European Union a tool for sanctioning violations of stated democratic principles by limiting financial instruments more quickly than is currently possible. Both countries are currently under EU investigations for undermining the independence of courts, media and NGOs. In other words, if the mechanism was approved, they would risk losing tens of billions in aid. Without agreement among all member states, projects financed by the seven-year budget will go without funds and the EUR 750 billion agenda to rebuild European economy will not be activated.Continue reading
Liberals Transform the Political Landscape for Women
When the first participants successfully completed the European Women’s Academy in 2016, just 26,8% of the parliamentary seats in Europe were held by women. In recent years, the political representation of women in European parliaments has steadily improved. Together with its partners at the ALDE Party and the European Liberal Forum, the Friedrich Naumann Foundation has been working for years to empower women in politics. The results speak for themselves.Continue reading